Posts Tagged ‘sauvignon blanc’
Guest Post by Fred Swan
This weekend’s events look a little sparse on the surface. But one little line item portends barrels of adventure. Hundreds of barrels. Full of wine. canadian viagra
tle=”The 34th Annual Wine Road Barrel Tasting in Northern Sonoma” href=”http://www.wineroad.com/events/barrel_tasting/3#tabs-5″ target=”_blank”>The 34th Annual Wine Road Barrel Tasting in Northern Sonoma.
There have already been excellent articles on this site about the barrel tasting. I don’t want to repeat what has been said. But, the list of more than 120+ wineries makes it hard to know where to start. So, I’ll offer a couple of itineraries for you to consider:
(Editorial note by William, for those of you who listened to me on KRSO tonight and are looking for the Tips & Ticket Contest, see Monday’s Post Here: Wine Road Barrel Tasting – The Premier Wine Buying Event of The Season. Learn, Share and Win Tickets! (4 winners!) )
Route 1: Get it While You Can — Wineries Open This Weekend Only
Saturday, focus on wineries west of Hwy 101. I might start at Moshin. Their Sauvignon Blanc will ease you into tasting. Follow it up with vineyard-designate Pinot Noir and Zinfandel.
Next, head up Westside Road to De La Montanya. They have five different wines for you to sample, starting with Pinot Noir and closing with a late harvest Sauvignon Blanc. The dessert wine will lead nicely into lunch. You did pack a lunch, right?
Head north on Westside Drive as it turns into West Dry Creek. Pull in at Quivira. Eat your lunch near their biodynamic gardens. Then enjoy their Mourvedre and Petite Sirah.
From Quivra continue on to A. Rafanelli Winery which will be pouring 2010 Zinfandel and Cabernet Sauvignon. Their wines are always very good. And they age well.
On the second day do an eastern route. Rodney Strong will have a tasty assortment. Chalk Hill Chardonnay, Sonoma Coast Pinot Noir and Dry Creek Zinfandel.
From there, go to Stryker Sonoma. See how the Alexander Valley Cabernet Sauvignon from their estate differs from the Dry Creek wines you tried on Saturday. The’ll also pour Merlot.
Stay on the Alexander Valley Cabernet Sauvignon path by going to Trentadue. They’ll let you try their reserve, the La Storia Cabernet Sauvignon. The La Storia Zinfandel and La Storia Cuvee 32 blend will also be available.
For a taste of a completely different Cabernet Sauvignon AVA, head back across Hwy 101 to Ridge Vineyards. They’ve got a barrel of 2011 Monte Bello Cabernet Sauvignon from the Santa Cruz Mountains. (Ridge is open the 2nd weekend too, but why wait?)
Route 2: Que Syrah — There’s more to Sonoma than Chard, Zin, Pinot and Cab
Formulate an itinerary from among these excellent Syrah producers:
Joseph Swan (Forestville) will be pouring not one but three vineyard-designate Syrah. Give them a try and see how the terroir of the different vineyards shows through in the wines. The winery will also have Zin, Tannat and more.
Vintoteca in Santa Rosa will be featuring six different wineries. Among the wines will be Olson Ogden’s Dry Creek Syrah. Before you dive into that though, try the Pinot Noirs from Bjornstadt and Baker Lane.
Krutz Family Cellars (Santa Rosa) Cabernet Sauvignon from the Stagecoach Vineyards of Napa Valley was one of Wine Enthusiast’s Top 100 Wines for 2011. They’re opening a barrel of Syrah from that same vineyard, which excels with that variety.
Lauterbach Cellars (Windsor) has acclaimed Syrah fruit, but makes wine in tiny quantities. This is your chance to try some. They’ll have the 2009 Syrah, but will start you off with Pinot Noir and their Syrah Rosé.
Red Car (Sebastopol) is un-bunging their Estate Syrah. But first, enjoy Heaven & Earth and their estate Pinot Noir.
Dutton Estate Winery will be pouring My Father’s Syrah. …I didn’t even know my dad had Syrah! I’m sure it will be good though. They’ve also got Pinot and Chardonnay on tap wine thief.
Six Sigma Ranch Pro & Amateur Pruning Competition —Lower Lake: March 3, 10:00am – noon
Learn pruning from the pros and try your hand at it, too!
Cab Release Weekend at Velo Vino — St. Helena: March 3 – 4, 11:00am – 6:00pm
A special Vertical tasting of our 2006, 2007 and 2008 kit’s killer cab.
Charles Krug Winery Celebrates Charles Krug’s 187th Birthday — St. Helena: March 3, 6:00pm – 9:30pm
Imagine the light the birthday candles will put out! There’ll be appetizers and three-course wine dinner.
34th Annual Wine Road Barrel Tasting – Northern Sonoma: March 2 – 4, 11:00am – 4:00pm
144 wineries open their doors this weekend, many will be offering futures. Advance ticket sales are over, but you can buy tickets at the door.
Inspiration Vineyards Winemaker Dinner — Santa Rosa: March 2, 6:30pm – 9:30pm
There are still a few seats available for this dinner and the menu looks great!
Music at Vino di Amore Tasting Lounge — Cloverdale: March 2, 7:00pm – 9:30pm
Unwind after work, or barrel tasting, to rock and reggae played by Oscar Caleron.
Hanzell Vineyards Winemaker Dinner at Santé — Sonoma: March 8, 6:30pm
Join Hanzell winemaker Michael McNeill for a delicious four-course dinner paired with past and current vintages of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir.
A Quick Plug:
The Wine Advocate will soon be releasing Antonio Galloni’s report on Sonoma County Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. You can learn more about him and what he looks for wines by reading my in-depth interview with him. It’s being published in daily doses this week at NorCalWine.com.
Enjoy your weekend!
I recently attended Wines with Altitude, where the vintners of Lake County California brought their wines to town — literally, to a stunning San Francisco venue on Treasure Island. Casually dressed wine-makers and staff members poured and chatted with the attendees between baguettes and hummus. A folksy event put together by the Lake County Winery Association, the four-hour pow-wow came with a classy glass sporting the Wines with Altitude slogan, a fresh personal-size baguette, and booklet with info and space for wine-tasting notes. I attended as press.
The event was held at The Winery SF on Treasure Island. WARNING: This is a place of jaw-dropping city views. It was easy access and there were a couple of food trucks outside with picnic tables.
Inside there was a large main floor of wine pouring. An upstairs room featured winning wines from the 2011 Lake County Wine awards. In all, over 100 different wines were pouring from 20 or so wineries. There were olives and olive oil, pizzettas and gazpacho and some nice lounging areas in the old building.
I’ve been known to favor Lake County Sauvignon Blancs. The Altitude theme suggested Reds. I arrived with my notebook and spit-cup, eager to commence tasting, and not really knowing what to expect. It turned out to be a day of surprises, some professional – like tasting a Lake County Aglianico, and some personal – like running into Napa Valley winemaker Nils Venge, the first person who exposed me to garagiste winemaking. The story: About twenty years or so ago, a group of friends and I loyally appeared every season to help Nils bottle his fledgling Saddleback Cellars wines in a small concrete block building on Money Road in Rutherford, CA. The little block building is still the nucleus of Saddleback and Nils now also owns Cougar’s Leap in Lake County.
I made an effort to taste every Sauvignon Blanc (SB), and there were quite a few. The Lake County SB’s were each so different, I couldn’t identify a Lake County “style” or varietal “character.” The only label I recognized was Guenoc, a widely distributed and solid SB. This was a good sign I was discovering a number of labels for the first time. I learned that Guenoc is a Valley – and it’s own AVA — and that the premium SB is their Langtry Sauvignon Blanc (250 cases produced vs thousands of Guenoc). I liked the Langtry. My other favorite Sauvignon Blanc’s were 2 from Six Sigma Michael’s Vineyard – the 2010 stainless with bright fresh melon on the nose and classic grapefruit on the palette – and a single vineyard, very lightly oaked version that maintains a crisp, cleansing acidity while adding dimension from the oak. This wine recently won best-in-class in the 2011 Lake County Wine Awards Competition, directed by Ray Johnson.
Cougar’s Leap offered a unique Sauvignon Blanc rendition – the 2010 Black Rock White which is 70% Semillion, 30% SB and, according to vintner Nils Venge, includes a boost from a one-time barrel of Albarino. Cougar’s Leap was pouring 2 other wines and they were memorable: The 2008 Black Rock Zinfandel with lots of fruit coming through structure and tannins, and which Venge claims with a crooked grin is “17% alcohol.” Reviewers have dubbed it “Ballistic!” Definitely a wine with “Altitude.” I finished with a 2007 Petite Sirah at Cougar’s Leap.
Nils introduced me to Gregory Graham, and I spent quite a bit of time at Greg’s table. Former wine-maker at Rombauer, Graham has been at it for 30 years. At one point he was making 4 different Zinfandels for them. For his own label, he makes only small lots using bins for fermentation. He says this has freed him from the constraints of tank-based wine-making, giving him a lot of flexibility. He was pouring several wines. I tasted the 2009 Gregory Graham Red Hills Bartolucci Vineyard Viognier, one of the nicest Viognier’s I’ve had … and it’s a $16, 13.5% alcohol wine. Graham’s 2007 Grenache was my personal favorite of the day, delivering a mouth-filling intensity and lingering romance of fruit and texture on the palette. The 2008 Cinder Cone was my red blend favorite of the day – 48% Syrah, 24% Cabernet, and 14% each Malbec and Grenache. Big, balanced, and Red. Graham’s wines are well-priced, running from $15-16 for Dry Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc, to a high of $38 for a Sonoma Coast Pinot Noir he wasn’t pouring, and a number of wines in the $18-24 range. Gregory Graham wines represent star-quality wine-making at excellent value pricing.
Rosa d’Oro Aglianico. This is a red varietal grape of Southern Italian regions – Basilicata and Campania – pronounced alianico. I’ve had the Corte Normana from Campania (imported by Salvia Bianca), and heard of one or two Aglianico’s being vinted in California. So I was pleased and surprised to find Pietro Buttitta pouring his family’s estate-grown 2008 Aglianico. It’s a lovely wine expressing the full Aglianico character, if in a smoother, less rustic style than it’s Italian brethren. Well-priced at $18. I tasted the 2008 Barbera, which won a Silver medal in the Chronicle Wine Competition – also a fine wine at the $18 price point.
I decided the only way to cope with the bounty of Rosa d’Oro, is to visit the their Tasting Room in Kelseyville and do some serious sampling of the Primativo, Nebbiolo, Sangiovese, Dolcetto and maybe a Rosato. And in another year or two, they will be bringing out a NegroAmaro! (You read it here first.) Pietro is also a prolific blogger – check him out here.
It’s clear I have a lot to learn about Lake county as a wine region and I’m planning to make a trip. You can find various Lake County Wine events online; next up is the Lake County Wine Auction on Sept 17. The event that interests me most is the People’s Choice Wine Awards and blind tasting on November 5.
I love blind tastings … as long as I can see the view!
One last surprise: Many of Lake County Wineries have active Facebook pages, but there is definitely room for growth in the Twitter realm. The Winery SF’s most recent tweet was in July, nearly 2 months ago. One would expect better care and feeding, especially when you have a high-profile name, location, and over 2000 Twitter followers.
A fair share of my Wine of the Week selections are chosen from microwineries, harder to find producers, geek or Rhone varieties, or wines over $20. That’s often what I drink, but certainly not all. It most especially does not represent, as I often remind my wine geek, fellow wine writers, and wine maker friends, what the mass population of North American wine drinkers consume.
I will often write about these as I remain dedicated to helping the typical wine lover and consumer, expand their horizons. Wine knowledge is a journey of ever broadening discovery, no matter what your experience level, and I would pass on some of my ‘wasted’ years and eye opening experiences, and save readers only drinking big red overoaked wines for your first ten years, which sadly over the last 20 years the consumer has been lead to think is ‘good’.
However, even in the world of mass market consumption, there ARE good wines you can find widely available, under $20, and just grab off the shelf.
The Dry Creek Vineyard Fumé Blanc is one of those. A price any budget can afford, a wine most wine consumers can enjoy (get over that ‘I don’t drink white wines’ stance – its killing your growth,) yet enough there for the experience wine consumer to enjoy, even if as a uber wine geek you’d ‘prefer’ a $30 ‘white’ 6 month skin contact Trousseau Gris.
About Dry Creek Vineyards
Dry Creek Vineyards is becoming one of those rare breed and size winery. Still family owned and operated since founded 39 years ago, as the winery that put Sauvignon Blanc on the map in north Sonoma County, they exist in a difficult space. At 100k+ cases they aren’t the sometimes more fashionable boutique winery, yet they are a fraction of the size of the BIG boys who make millions of cases a year. Only a handful of wineries exist in this size, and less and less each year. A visit to their tasting room and meeting the team, feels the same as the 20k case winery down the road. Perhaps more another time, but do take a few minutes to read about one of Dry Creek Valley’s pioneers, that brings a piece of the Loire Valley, by clicking here and their love affair with sauvignon blanc here.
I visited with Bill Smart, Director of Communications, several months ago and tasted through a series of wines. I should point out, Dry Creek Vineyards makes a number of small lot wines, including other sauvignon blancs, but by design for this tasting we wanted to focus on what consumers could find widely available. Do drop by the tasting room to try these – I will be.
About Fumé Blanc
Sauvignon Blanc is sometimes referred to as Fume’ Blanc. Purportedly this started when Robert Mondavi in 1968, changed their Sauvignon Blanc from an off dry to dry version. To not confuse their customers, they came up with the name “Fumé Blanc”, from Pouilly-Fumé, a popular dry-style Loire Valley wines made from Sauvignon Blanc. Rather than trade marking the name, Mondavi offered to allow anyone to use the Fumé Blanc name to market dry-style Sauvignon Blanc.
Fumé is French for “smoke,” but has nothing to do with smoky flavor in the wine. It refers to morning fog in the Loire Valley. Any’ smokey’ smells or flavors are from aging in newer oak barrels, not from any aroma or flavor character that is in Sauvignon Blac. Although some wineries choose oak barrel fermentation and/or oak aging, the use of Fumé Blanc on a label does not mean the wine was barrel-fermented or ever contact any oak, although it’s a common misperception that it does. (Another spin is that sauvignon blanc didn’t sell, so Robert changed the name.)
Dry Creek Vineyards Fume Blanc (Sauvignon Blanc), Sonoma County
Welcome to the 39th vintage of this flagship wine of Dry Creek Vineyards. This sauvignon blanc is entirely stainless fermented, with no oak contact.
On the Nose: Fragant nose of white peach, honeysuckle, grapefruit
In The Mouth: Citrus. Lime & grapefruit as well as some herbaceous characters found in the popular New Zealand sauvignon blancs, but with some minerality as well as great acidity that give it a bit more nuance. The finish is dry and mouth watering. Would pair well with shellfish, salads, or make a great aperitif.
Recommendation: An excellent value at $12. This wine has justly received many awards over the years, including recent Best Buy from Wine Enthusiast and in 2008 was the prestigious Sonoma County Harvest Fair (which I am pleased to be added as a judge this year) Sweepstakes winner.
89 Points – Excellent, Recommended Buy. Buy locally or online, or check your local store. Media Sample (but I will be restocking for summer and Thanksgiving.)
Side Note: I should add their <$10 Chenin Blanc, is also a great value at $8-10, and varietal I wish we saw more of in Sonoma. I have the 2009 also in my glass, current release is 2010, or it could have also ended up as a Wine of the Week.
Wine Geek Info:
- Grapes 100% Sauvignon Blanc
- Appellation: Sonoma County
- Harvest: October 4, 2010
- Fermentation: Stainless steel fermented at an average of 52˚F for about 30 days
- Barrel Aging: None
- Alcohol: 13.5%
- Total Acidity: 0.64g/200mL
- pH: 3.36
- Residual Sugar: Dry
- Aging Potential: 3 – 5 years
- Case Production: ~30,000 cases
Last month I did a full review of the Charity Case 2008 Rose'. As I dive into the 2009 Sauvignon Blanc I am again impressed by their noble cause, but also by the quality of this wine. A detail I forgot to mention last time, the wine maker is Jayson Woodbridge of Layer Cake.
To The Eye: Dark Yellow, clear, vibrant
On The Nose: A Delightful nose. I was afraid the dark color and barrel fermentation might be
lie new oak on this but I suspect the oak was neutral, or a few years old. I am generally not a fan of SB where the oak flavor can be detected. Tropical fruit, gooseberry, apricot.
In The Mouth: Equally delightful. This wine is lush, creamy texture and mouthfeel. While I would not call it a French Sancerre style, its definitely not your standard New Zealand grassy, herbal SB. Melon, ripe stone fruit. Nice finish with balanced acidity and fruit that linger.
Recommendation: An excellent value for $14 – not to mention a great cause!
Friday is #SauvBlanc Day
This Friday June 24th is #SauvBlanc day on Twitter, where people will enjoy and Tweet about #sauvblanc – grab a bottle of this to enjoy AND help a good cause. Cheers!
Paul Dolan is a renowned leader in sustainable, biodynamic, and organic agriculture. Paul is the author of True to Our Roots: Fermenting a Business Revolution the story of how he led the sixth largest winery in the nation to industry and market leadership while successfully pioneering the path of sustainability.
“After tasting the real difference between organic and conventionally farmed grapes, side by side in a sun-drenched vineyard in 1987, my entire way of thinking about grape growing changed. The organic grapes were expressive, interesting and balanced while the conventionally farmed grapes were bland and insipid.”
Whether or not you can 'taste' the difference of biodynamic and organic grapes is something of a controversy in the industry, although some producers swear by it, as Paul does. Regardless, it's the right thing to do as stewards of the land, our environment, and for future generations. Indeed if a wine grower needs a selfish reason, most do admit the long term benefits in the health of a vineyard and soil profile compared to the results of years of chemical farming. This isn't a fad or a marketing ploy, it's part of sharing this planet with others.
Parducci, Paul Dolan, Mendocino Press Tour End of this Month
I have been enjoying a number of Paul Dolan & Parducci wines these last few months, and look forward to a scheduled visit, and personal tour at the end of the month. Anything you would like me to ask him, on the behalf or readers? What other wineries would you like me to visit and write about? (No revisits this trip to places have tasted before.)
2009 Paul Dolan Vineyards Sauvignon Blanc, Mendocino County
100% Organically grown grapes, from a high elevation, affording hot days, and cold nights. Temperature swings like these allow grapes to ripen with full flavor, but retain acidity, key to balance in a wine.
On the Nose: Green apple, kiwi, Crisp asian pear.
In the Mouth: The published tasting notes say “The wine has a distinctive kiwi fruit character, complemented by bright citrus zest and lemon grass notes.” The latter may make you think of New Zealand sauvignon blanc, but it does not have the herbaceous, grassy like quality many of the New Zealand sauvignon blancs, and their counterparts too. (Not there is anything wrong with that style, but this is a pleasant change.)
It is not the overripe version we can see from warm climates, but instead nicely balanced. I taste kiwi and apple, nice mouthfeel, texture, good acidity, but not searing.
This wine is best drunk at proper cellar, not refrigerator temperatures – overchilling mutes much of the more delicate flavors in the mouth. Some budget priced SB's serve better chilled, even with a ice cube as a porch pounder – don't do that to this one, its more refined and nuanced.
Recommendations: Recommended buy. Well made, subtly, pleasantly slightly unique from many other North Coast sauvignon blancs.
Where to Buy: Online - click here. $17.99. Media Sample
Wine Geek Info:
- VINEYARDS 100% MENDOCINO COUNTY
- COOPERAGE: 100% STAINLESS STEEL FERMENTED & AGED
- ALCOHOL: 13.5% BY VOLUME
- TA: 0.58 G/100ML
- PH: 3.28
- RS: 0.03G/100ML
- CASES: 4,050 CASES
- CERTIFICATION: 100% ORGANICALLY GROWN GRAPES, C.C.O.F. CERTIFIED
It’s back; Simple Hedonisms wine reviews. I have quite the backlog of reviews, and hope to share a steady stream over the holiday season. I should note, I actually recording tasting notes frequently during the week, which can be found on my CellarTracker profile, here.
It’s that time where family and friends are beginning to roll in. The holidays are such a great time to enjoy wine paired with seasonal fare, or just to quaff something that’s easy to enjoy as you catch up with loved ones.
Residents of wine country have a lot at our fingertips from very small lot producers, to value priced widely available wines. When buying wine for visiting family, friends, and for meals consider a few bottles that are modestly priced, appeal to a wide range of palates and experience levels, and foods. Your Uncle Charlie may not appreciate that Wind Gap Trousseau Gris with extended skin contact…so don’t waste it on him.
Why Sauvignon Blanc
One of wines I’d recommend for a broad range of consumers is the Rodney Strong Sauvignon Blanc. I like, and recommend this wine for a variety of reasons:
- It won’t break the bank at $15 or so, and widely available at many stores; you can just throw one in the cart, as you are buying supplies to feed the house guests.
- Sauvignon Blanc in my experience is one of those ‘universal’ whites that almost everyone will drink. I find that the ‘red wine only’ crowd if they do dabble in white, will enjoy sauvignon blanc. I also find on the other end of the spectrum for many of my friends and I always looking for new and interesting, sauvignon blanc still offers a safe haven, and a good balance of flavor, acidity.
- It drinks great by itself, as an aperitif, or paired with many foods; especially a salad at the beginning of the meal. This is even more so with a style like this one, that is a bit more bold and ‘juicy’ as opposed to some of the more New Zealand ‘grassy’ style.
For Turkey Day?
You will find people on both side’s of the fence for sauvignon blanc for Turkey. It certainly can pair with portions of the menu, especially the salad and starters. Thanksgiving is one of those holiday meals I strongly recommend going through wine in courses if you have a crowd, or as I like to do, open up 2-3 different bottles and have them all on the table.
What better way to see first hand what pairs well and what doesn’t. Sparkling wine and Pinot are two others I’d recommend as near universal.
Wine: Rodney Strong Charlotte’s Home Sauvignon Blanc. Sonoma County
Color: clear, light straw
Aromas: Nose of citrus and kiwi.
In the Mouth: The blend of the warm climate Alexander Valley fruit with cooler climate Russian River, makes for a unique, flavorful wine. Ripe grapefruit , pear, melon in mouth. Nice finish with good minerality and acidity. Drinks well by itself, pair with moderate acidic foods.
Price: Media Sample. $12-15 retail.
Enjoy Your Friends and Family
A special pre-Holiday best wishes to all readers and followers. I hope next week you can take the time to slow down a bit, and appreciate the gifts we have in life. I hope to be finally be unwinding a bit myself, and look forward to relaxing with friends, tasting wine and doing some creative kitchen time. Feel free to post comments looking for wine recommendations or food pairings, always happy to help. Cheers!
Tonight I am swirling in my glass a very interesting white wine blend, that is a project from Reynoso Vineyards, a small Cloverdale grower and vintner.
The red blend (Syrah, Zin, Petite Sirah) will be released shortly. The term ‘Long Gamma’ is a bit of a mystery, but I believe refers to a Stock Trading term, which given that there are ex-Chicago denizens in this project, may be indicative of careers prior to the Wine Industry.
I was immediately intrigued by Long Gamma white blend when I learned the blended varietals; 60% Sauvignon Blanc, 25% Viognier, 15% Gewurtzraminer.
My taste buds immediately perked up at Viogner, a white Rhone varietal that adds great florals and excellent mouthfeel, whether blended or bottled as a varietal.
Wine Tasting Notes
Color: Bright pale yellow, with a slight green hue. Clear.
On The Nose: I had expected the Viognier to dominate the nose with its typical fragrant, floral aromas, but was clearly able to detect the Sauvignon Blanc. The hints of grassiness, grapefruit indicative of an SB are there, just a bit subdued. Interwoven are the viognier aromas; subtle citrus, peach, honey. Gewurztraminer is also a varietal know for its floral elements; I have to confess I don’t drink Gewurtz as much as I’d like, as I only care for dry Gewurtz, and little is made here in North Sonoma.
In The Mouth: Wow – the 3 varietals meld together splendidly. Layers of peach, subtle lime, green apple. Touch of minerality and wet stone mid palette. Great mouthfeel and excellent balance, that ends in a lingering, slightly mouth watering finish, pleasing acidity. This is a quaffable wine suitable both for standalone consumption or paired with food. For the love of Dionysus do NOT overchill this wine and serve it right from the fridge – you mute all these great flavor profiles. Mid 50s please.
One of the best parts of this great blend – is the suggested retail is $10-12. I just ordered a half case to start, this is one of my new summer house whites.
In a few weeks you can purchase this on a new Long Gamma website, until then you can do so via contacting Reynoso, or as of now at Andy’s Market in Sebastopol, BoardWalk Market in Tiburon, Wilibees Wines in Petaluma, and Farmstead Cheese and Wine in Alameda and Montclair.